The study of systematics in wide-ranging seabirds can be challenging due to the vast geographic scales involved, as well as the possible discordance between molecular, morphological and behavioral data. In the Southern Ocean, macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) are distributed over a circumpolar range including populations in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic areas. Macquarie Island, in its relative isolation, is home to a closely related endemic taxon — the royal penguin (Eudyptes schlegeli), which is distinguishable from E. chrysolophus mainly by facial coloration. Although these sister taxa are widely accepted as representing distinct species based on morphological grounds, the extent of their genome-wide differentiation remains uncertain. In this study, we use genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms to test genetic differentiation between these geographically isolated taxa and evaluate the main drivers of population structure among breeding colonies of macaroni/royal penguins. Genetic similarity observed between macaroni and royal penguins suggests they constitute a single evolutionary unit. Nevertheless, royal penguins exhibited a tendency to cluster only with macaroni individuals from Kerguelen Island, suggesting that dispersal occurs mainly between these neighboring colonies. A stepping stone model of differentiation of macaroni/royal populations was further supported by a strong pattern of isolation by distance detected across its whole distribution range, possibly driven by large geographic distances between colonies as well as natal philopatry. However, we also detected intraspecific genomic differentiation between Antarctic and sub-Antarctic populations of macaroni penguins, highlighting the role of environmental factors together with geographic distance in the processes of genetic differentiation between Antarctic and sub-Antarctic waters.
The European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) will provide an independent performance assessment of Verdant Power’s 5th Generation (Gen5) tidal turbine system to be deployed for commercial demonstration in New York City’s East River in 2020.The deployment will be conducted under Verdant Power’s Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy (RITE) project and will be comprised of three Gen5 turbines mounted on a Verdant Power TriFrame.Verdant Power secured $6 million in funding for the effort in late 2018, including support from the US Department of Energy and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA).EMEC will aim to extend its ISO/IEC accreditation as a test laboratory to assess the performance of the three Gen5 turbines using international technical specifications and seek to become the first marine energy test laboratory to issue a report through the IECRE system, the Centre said.Elaine Buck, technical manager at EMEC, said: “EMEC has been central to the development of standards for marine energy for nearly two decades, and we will bring these skills to bear on the RITE project. Verdant Power are an innovative company with a strong vision for where they are heading, and we are delighted they have selected EMEC to be part of that vision.“This will be the first time EMEC has carried out an off-site performance assessment, and potentially the first marine energy test report issued through the IECRE. This will set a new bar for tidal energy technologies globally.“As a stage for EMEC’s first tidal energy performance assessment outside Orkney, you couldn’t ask for somewhere higher profile than New York City.”Ron Smith, president at Verdant Power, added: “Our efforts at the RITE Project over the last decade have allowed us to advance our technology, and the marine energy industry, in significant ways. As such, working with EMEC, the world’s premier marine energy test facility, is a natural fit for us. The addition of their technical expertise and particularly their independent third-party verification of our system’s performance is key as we bring the technology to market. “Furthermore, utilizing the newly formed IECRE System and issuing the world’s first Renewable Energy Test Report (RETR) for the assessment of power performance for a tidal energy converter not only supports our company mission but also advances the marine energy industry at large.”
Now unbeaten in five starts, and subject to what is believed to be a high seven-figure transfer to Qatari owner Sheikh Joaan Bin Hamad Al Thani after she lifted the French Oaks, Treve has provided priceless moments to all those involved with her and, joyously, looks set to remain in training next season. Drawn wide, Treve (9-2) was unable to get any cover and pulled her head dramatically curving around the back of the course but still appeared to have so much to offer as she rolled to the lead turning into the home straight. All renaissance man Jarnet needed to do was point her in the right direction as his mount was never remotely in danger as she stretched right away. Head-Maarek is already the only woman to have trained the winner of the Arc, thanks to another filly Three Troikas back in 1979, and her latest was bred by her father, Alec. “I want to say thank you to Frankie Dettori as he rode an amazing race on her in the Prix Vermeille. I said to save her for today and he did,” she said. “A big kiss and thank you to Frankie, I am sorry he is not here today. “The way she won was incredible. She was wide the whole way and was travelling so easily the jockey just said he just let her go. I’m surprised how well she won, as we’ve never pushed her. “I thought she had six gears, but today she put the seventh one on.” Fillies have taken France’s signature race on many occasions – including the last two in Solemia and Danedream and stylishly by Zarkava in 2008 – but rarely do they assert such superiority over the colts as Criquette Head-Maarek’s marvel did by obliterating Orfevre by five lengths. All those at Longchamp on this international afternoon could only stop and admire Treve – she was even applauded sportingly by the thousands of Japanese visitors who had to settle for second best yet again – and perhaps the only person who will have been truly distressed is Frankie Dettori, who had to give the winning mount to Thierry Jarnet after breaking his ankle on Wednesday. Press Association What had been billed as the most fascinating and complex Qatar Prix de l’Arc de Triomphe in some years was simply reduced to a one-horse show as Treve offered up a quite astonishing performance in Paris. The humble and highly popular trainer went on: “I’m so proud for papa and for the Sheikh. “When he bought her, he said ‘I want you win an Arc’, I said ‘I cant promise but I’ll do my best’. “I’d like to ask the Sheikh if I can give her a rest. If there’s one race for her it would be Hong Kong. “I am going to speak with the Sheikh with the objective of keeping her in training next season and preparing her to win the Arc again.” Alec Head said: “I won the Arc with two fillies, but I think she is ahead of them all.” Jarnet, 46, secured the second of his previous Arcs way back in 1994. “It was a different era when I was riding for Andre Fabre and I’m just pleased to show I can still be effective,” he said. “This is beautiful, more in a way for the filly than for myself, as I have a strong affinity with her.” Christophe Soumillon, distressed when Orfevre appeared to give away last year’s Arc to Solemia, felt Treve was on another level. The Belgian did not do anything wrong and the powerful chestnut, who was the 2-1 favourite but shorter in the Pari Mutuel due to his nation’s support, was a head in front of Intello and two lengths clear of his compatriot Kizuna in fourth. “I got a good position but unfortunately the pace was not too strong,” Soumillon said. “I was trying to give him a good blow coming into the straight, but Treve took off at the 350 and we couldn’t follow her. “I was hoping she would stop, but she didn’t. His attitude was really great, I’m very sorry for the Japanese fans, owners and trainers who want to win this beautiful race and keep finishing second. “I think he’s a great champion but unfortunately Treve was just too good.” Roger Charlton’s Al Kazeem was sixth, one place in front of one of Aidan O’Brien’s two Classic winners, the Derby hero Ruler Of The World. Ryan Moore’s mount was a little short of room but never near enough, while the supplemented St Leger winner Leading Light was 12th. O’Brien said: “It was messy but they finished off their races well and they are two nice horses to look forward to next season.”